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1 Introduction

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a multifaceted technique whose areas of expertise comprise high-resolution liquid and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), relaxometry, and diffusometry. Although these methods appear different in many aspects, such as instrumentation, sample preparation, data analysis, etc., they share the same magnetic resonance principle: a collection of nuclei of atoms with magnetic properties distributed onto various energy levels defined by the orientation of their magnetic moments with respect to an external magnetic field. This field can be homogeneous or inhomogeneous depending on the NMR methodology. After reaching the so-called thermal equilibrium, nuclei are irradiated by a second weak radiofrequency field. The excited nuclei give back their excess energy and return to low energy levels by two relaxation processes, either by interaction with the environment (lattice) or by exchanging energy with neighboring nuclei at lower energy levels. The former process is called spin–lattice relaxation and is characterized by a time constant the spin–lattice relaxation time (T1), whereas the latter process, the spin–spin relaxation, is described by the time constant spin–spin relaxation time (T2). The time scale of the relaxing nuclei depends heavily on the molecular weight of the compound, the chemical environment of the nuclei, and the physical state (liquid or solid) of the sample; therefore, it is critical for each NMR application. Relaxation mechanisms involve local magnetic fields that appear a short distance from the nuclei, they are produced by the atomic and electronic environment of the nucleus and modulated by molecular motion. If these local fields fluctuate at or near the Larmor frequency of the nuclei, they are capable of inducing relaxation; therefore, relaxation times are valuable parameters to study molecular dynamics in solution.

NMR spectroscopy offers high potential for the analysis of multicomponent systems, such as food matrices. This is reflected on the increasing number of NMR applications by food scientists, in academic institutions, governmental food laboratories, and food industry. Recent technological advances in NMR instrumentation including high magnetic fields produced by superconducting solenoids and the development of cryogenic probes, have increased significantly the sensitivity of liquid and solid-state NMR experiments. In addition, improvements in automation and high-throughput technologies and the development of user-friendly software, also boosted the number of NMR food-based applications. Furthermore, the application of magnetic pulse field gradients has advanced the design of sophisticated pulse sequences, as well as the development of diffusion NMR methods and the noninvasive visualization of foods by NMR imaging. The combined advantages of Fourier transform and the sophisticated multipulse sequences allowed the performance of elegant multidimensional experiments in order to extract fine structural information of food components in solid and liquid state. Another innovation introduced in NMR methodology is the hyphenation of the NMR spectrometers with high performance liquid chromatography methods exploiting the separation capabilities and the low detection limits of liquid chromatography, stimulating thus novel applications in food research. Finally, the coupling of NMR spectroscopy with chemometrics allowed the exposure of hidden relationships in complex data of food systems consisting of a large number of samples (observations) and chemical compounds (variables). For example, supervised multivariate data analysis has been used for building models for classification, calibration, and prediction. One of the most common types of applications of NMR coupled to statistical analysis in food analysis is for obtaining information about traceability, although other types of applications have been also reported. This growing interest of the application of NMR spectroscopy to solve particular problems in food science has been duly recorded in a series of biannual conferences devoted to “Applications of magnetic resonance in food science” that started in 1992 and continue to date. Full coverage of NMR applications to food science, can be found in several exhaustive review articles (Alberti, Belton, & Gil, 2002; Bertocchi & Paci, 2008; Capozzi & Cremonini, 2009; Hatzakis, 2019; Sacchi & Paolillo, 2007; Spyros & Dais, 2009; Tang, Vasas, Hatzakis, & Spyros, 2019). The aim of this chapter is to give a brief presentation of the NMR methodologies used in food analysis and some practical aspects related to instrumentation and sample preparation, to report recent developments, and to introduce selected applications preferentially in the field of quality control and authentication of foods.


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I Ran Into My Best Friend's Exes... | The Night Shift

KnightShift (2003) – PC Gameplay / Win 10


KnightShift (2003) PC Gameplay / Win 10
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https://store.steampowered.com/app/254060/KnightShift/

Useful infos / how to run:
https://pcgamingwiki.com
Try these if game is not working:
▪ dgVoodoo 2
▪ DxWnd
▪ Turn Off DEP (Data Execution Prevention) in Windows
▪ Play with compatibility settings
▪ If you can’t install a game in Windows 10 directly, download
https://www.virtualbox.org and install Windows XP 32bit for example.Then install game there and move files to Win 10 (sometimes you need to export and edit registry too).

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KnightShift (2003) - PC Gameplay / Win 10

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